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Causes of abortion (detailed)

1301
12/30/01

Abortion diseases:

An infection traveling through the maternal blood stream and making its way to the fetus (from the maternal blood stream). The most important of these (the "Big Three") are: Campylobacter (vibrio), Chlymdia and Toxoplasmosis.

The most distinguishing symptoms of each disease are highlighted with the funny color type.

CAMPYLOBACTER FETUS

1316

aka: Vibrio, vibrionic abortioin

SYMPTOMS

ESTRUS CYCLES LONG AND IRREGULAR
INFERTILITY (STERILITY)

ABORTION at 4 - 6 weeks before due
BABIES - WEAK OR STILLBORN
FETUS - BODILY CAVITIES FILLED WITH REDDISH FLUID

DIARRHEA (DOE)
RETAINED AFTERBIRTH
METRITIS (UTERINE INFECTION), PYOMETRA (PUS)

VAGINAL DISCHARGE
VULVA-VAGINITIS, PUSTULES, NODULES

This is a fairly common form of abortion in goats, but not so much as in sheep. The abortion will occur a little earlier than in Chlamydia. It is also to be suspected if there is difficulty in getting the doe to "settle" or conceive. Numerous attempts at breeding may be noticed. It is frequently accompanied by vulva-vaginitis and this may help to distinguish it from the breeding difficulties caused by an ovarian cyst (but, there are exceptions). It is about the only reproductive disease that may be accompanied by diarrhea.

Treatment consists of isolation of does which abort, antibiotics (but many strains are resistant) and vaccination of unaffected does. Aborting does develop an immunity which may be of rather short duration and it is generally recommended that an outbreak be followed up with routine vaccation. A preparation for sheep can be obtained without a prescription from most suppliers; from your veterinarian you may be able to obtain it in combination with Chlamydia psittaci. It would be our recommendation that laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis and discussion with your vet precede the use of either of these vaccines. Goats are not routinely vaccinated against these diseases unless there is a specific reason to do so.

CHLAMYDIAL ABORTION

1311

aka: Enzootic abortion, kebbing abortion

SYMPTOMS

ABORTION, SOMETIMES FOLLOWED BY DEATH OF DOE
PREMATURE DELIVERY [21 days early]
MOTHER GOES OFF FEED

AFTERBIRTH COMMONLY RETAINED
COTYLEDONS NECROTIC [Dead, brownish]

BABIES WEAK OR STILLBORN
FETUS CLAY-COLORED, MUMMIFIED, WITH DISTENDED ABDOMEN

ASSOCIATED WITH TICKS, RODENTS OR BIRDS

This disease is one of the most common causes of abortion in goats. It is the one with the classic tendency to present you with dead or extremely weak babies almost exactly three weaks ahead of the scheduled due date. Anomalies of the cotyledons ("leathery" or necrotic [dead, rotten, brownish] with thickened spaces between) and fetus (mummified or covered with "clay" colored flaky material; enlarged lymph nodes) are characteristic. If the dead fetus is carried inside the doe for a length of time, there is an increased chance that the mother will die.

It is commonly transmitted by ticks, rodents and birds rather than sexual contact, but its incidence seems to increase when new members are brought into the herd. It must always be considered when you have an abortion epidemic. Treatment consists of segregating all aborting does and using LA200® (or other tetracycline) on ALL does and surviving kids. The good news is that those who abort will usually breed successfully the following year and deliver with no difficulty. However, if they are infected very late in pregnancy they may deliver normally this time and then abort next year.

There is a vaccine, available from your vet or Pipestone, which may be helpful. If you or others in your area have an outbreak, vaccination should certainly be considered. Some have found it very beneficial and for others the results have been somewhat disappointing. Most sources suggest that exposed does receive LA200® 2 weeks apart at mid-gestation. Consideration should also be given to the elimination of ticks, rodents and birds.

TOXOPLASMOSIS

1326

SYMPTOMS

ABORTION AND PREMATURE DELIVERY
BABIES WEAK OR DEAD

ANOREXIA (LOSS OF APPETITE)
ATAXIA (INCOORDINATION) / PARALYSIS
CACHEXIA (WEAKNESS)
DEPRESSED AND/OR EXCITABILITY
DYSPNEA (SHORTNESS OF BREATH) AND COUGH
ENCEPHALITIS (BRAIN INFLAMMATION) AND C N S DYSFUNCTION
GASTROENTERITIS
ICTERUS (JAUNDICE)
TEMPERATURE - ABOVE NORMAL (NOT ALWAYS)
TREMBLES / TREMORS / MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS
WEIGHT LOSS

COTYLEDONS - WHITE SPOTS

CATS AND/OR RODENTS TRANSMIT

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most fascinating diseases that a livestock producer will ever encounter. It can lead to a delivery season which turns into a living nightmare as you watch one doe after another deliver weak and dead babies. Typically, if a doe has three kids, one will be stillborn, one will be small and very weak (and may or may not survive heroic attempts at rescue) and one will appear fairly normal. The disease is caused by a protozoa which lives in the blood which goes through several stages, at least one of which will usually be in the family cat which frequents the barn and uses the feed storage area for a bathroom. Getting rid of the disease in your goats may require the euthanasia of your favorite cat.

[In adult cats there may be no symptoms; if any there will be disturbances of the central nervous system. In kittens, there will be generalize acute illness with fever, respiratory signs, diarrhea and nervous signs.]

Another tragically interesting aspect is the wide variety of symptoms which can be exhibited by the doe. Some will appear perfectly healthy while others will be critically ill. Disturbances of the central nervous system (CNS) are the most typical. The doe may appear incoordinated or show paralysis which makes you think that perhaps she has suffered a stroke. She will commonly refuse to eat and develop severe digestive discomfort. She then may become more susceptible to other infections, such as worms or liver flukes.

Treatment is of limited value. However, it is our recommendation that you perform blood testing on all the adults in the herd. This may be fairly expensive, but at least you will be able to make critical decisions on the basis of factual data. Also, any cats which have access to the area should also be tested. The blood work will provide you with blood antibody levels, known as "titers." A zero reading indicates that the animal has probably not been exposed to the disease. Any titer level above 60 indicates a probable active disease state. Readings in the low range would be indicative of exposure with immunity possibly sufficient to prevent the disease. Of course, you should work in close conjunction with your vet in interpreting the results and also compare them with what you know about the fate of the offspring of the tested does. You would expect highest levels in those which had the worst reproductive results. The fetus and placenta can also be examined for active toxoplasmosis; cool (but do not freeze) them and transport to your vet for shipment to the diagnostic lab.

WARNING! This disease is transmissible to human handlers and can lead to abortion in pregnant females. If any members of your family are pregnant or could become pregnant and have been or may be exposed to toxoplasmosis, they should consult with their health care provider immediately. Additionally, unborn (human) babies can develop brain damage if the pregnant mother consumes undercooked or raw meat from an animal infected with toxoplasmosis. In fact, there is new evidence that more human cases result from the eating of contaminated meat than from cat feces. If you are unsure of the cause of any abortion in a farm animal and are pregnant, you should consult your veterinarian AND your doctor to see if testing is in order. It is possible to contract the disease from handling an infected fetus or placenta, from the feces of infected cats or rodents. The disease can also be transmitted to non-pregnant family members of either sex and we are definitely not qualified to discuss that situation; you should seek the advice of your doctor if exposed or feel that you have symptoms that may be related to the disease. In short, this is not a situation to be taken lightly.

Perhaps the most interesting aspect of toxoplasmosis is that it eventually just goes away. It is debatable whether treatment measures have any role in creating this scenario. This means that if you get rid of the offending cats and if Suzie Q survives the ordeal, she will probably return to full reproductive vigor.

Comments from personal experience: We experienced a toxoplasmosis epidemic in our herd a few years ago. The results were disastrous; a majority of the babies were born dead or extremely weak. We had the does all tested and they showed a wide range of antibody levels with some way above the "disease" level. The buck tested positive as well. My antibody level was below the disease level but indicative of significant exposure. We instituted a rigorous program of treatment which I can provide upon request. But there is no way of knowing it's actual benefits since there are many cases of complete recovery without treatment.

SALMONELLOSIS

1321

SYMPTOMS

ABORTION UP TO 6 WEEK BEFORE TERM
DIARRHEA
TENESMUS (PULSATING ANUS)/ NERVOUS
TEMPERATURE - 105 AND ABOVE OR VARIABLE AND INTERMITTENT

WEIGHT LOSS
ANOREXIA, LIGHT
DEHYDRATION
DEPRESSED

Although Salmonella is usually thought of as a leading cause of diarrhea, certain forms of the organism can also lead to abortion. It can easily be spread by new animals brought onto the premises or from babies with diarrhea being in contact with pregnant adults. It can also be brought in by rodents and birds. From the symptoms above, it is obvious that the doe may show signs of serious illness, which may even result in death.

Treatment begins with isolation of any animals which show signs of the disease. Tetracyclines (LA200®) or sulfa drugs are of limited benefit. Survivors should breed successfully in subsequent years but as carriers they can infect newcomers to the herd, which will abort. Isolation and prompt treatment of babies with diarrhea which may be of the Salmonella type will go a long way in preventing this type of reproductive disease. Crowding and poor sanitation, especially of the babies, greatly increases the chances of a Salmonella infection.

ASPERGILLOSIS

1333

SYMPTOMS

ABORTION
LABORED BREATHING

FETUS - GRAYISH-RED AREAS THAT RESEMBLE RINGWORM
COTYLEDONS - THICK, NECROTIC WITH YELLOW, CHEESY PLAQUES

Aspergillosis is a fungal infection that is usually associated with respiratory problems, especially in man. However, in rare instances this and other fungal organisms can cause abortions which are fairly hard to diagnose. The ringworm-like lesions on the fetus and/or afterbirth may be the only noticeable symptom. The only effective remedies can be obtained only from your veterinarian.

The best prevention is to keep goats in areas that have not previously housed poultry.

TRICHMONIASIS

1336

ABORTION
ESTRUS CYCLES LONG AND IRREGULAR WITH FAILURE TO CONCEIVE
UTERINE INFECTION WITH PYOMETRA (DISCHARGE)

Most typically a vaginal discharge at breeding will be the only sign. This is basically a disease of cattle. I can't recall ever hearing of a case in goats.

Q-FEVER

1331

Coxiella burnetti, a Rickettseal infection

SYMPTOMS

ABORTION
PNEUMONIA
EYE INFECTIONS

Fairly rare disease which can affect all species of livestock and man. In fact, people can become carriers and pass the disease to farm animals. Anyone with flu-like symptoms on a farm where Q-fever caused abortions are present should see their physician. Organisms probably transmitted in milk (less often via feces, afterbirth or meat). Diagnosis is quite difficult and treatment with tetracyclines may be unsuccessful.

BRUCELLOSIS (BANG'S DISEASE)

8092

SYMPTOMS

INFERTILITY
ABORTION IN 4th MONTH WITH PROLONGED VAGINAL DISCHARGE    AFTERWARDS
STILLBIRTH OR WEAK BABIES
RETAINED PLACENTA

MILK PRODUCTION FALLS
KERATITIS (INFLAMMATION OF CORNEA OF EYE); CONJUNCTIVITIS
BRONCHITIS
ARTHRITIS

Brucellosis is a "species specific" disease that can affect cattle, sheep and goats. It is of historical significance in being readily transmitted to people where it is known as "undulant fever" or "Malta fever" and was very common a century ago. Since then, rigid eradication programs have been very effective in nearly eliminating the disease from modern cattle. Brucella abortus in cattle, B. melitensis in goats and B. ovis in sheep are three very different diseases. It is quite rare in goats, where it is known as "Malta fever". Although the symptom is more common in rams, the organism can lead to orchitis (inflammation of the testicles) or epididymitis in billy goats. However, there may be no other symptoms except abortions.

Treatment consists of isolating the animal at once and discussing the situation with a qualified large animal vet. Culling may be the best option.

CAUTION:There have recently been a few cases of Brucella melitensis in Starr County, Texas. Goat raisers in that area can contact the Texas Animal Health Commission (or the USDA) for free testing to see if their animals may be carrying the disease and for other steps to take to assure the safety of their herd and handlers.

Vaccination Those interested in a new genetically engineered vaccine for Brucella melitensis for goats and humans can contact Brucellosis Research, NADC, P> O> Box 70, Ames IA 50010.

LEPTOSPIROSIS

8610

SYMPTOMS

ABORTION
ANEMIA ANOREXIA, LIGHT (OFF FEED) PROSTRATION DYSPNEA (SHORTNESS OF BREATH) TEMPERATURE - 105 AND ABOVE HEMOGLOBINURIA (BLOODY OR CLEAR RED URINE)
ICTERUS (JAUNDICE) MILK PRODUCTION FALLS MILK - THICK, GRAY OR YELLOW, BLOODY WITH NO CHANGE IN UDDER
Leptospirosis is a very important disease in cattle; nearly all producers regularly vaccinate against it. It is less common in goats, but probably has not received the attention which it deserves. Some goat people have now included Leptospirosis in their vaccination routine. It can cause a generalized illness with bloody urine and abortions being the most notable signs.

Treatment is unsuccessful; vaccines are available and should be considered if the disease is found in the area. There is considerable evidence that it can be transmitted by wildlife (in addition to rodents), possibly deer. It can be transmitted to dogs and man.


general infections where abortion can be a symptom

ANTHRAX

8028

SYMPTOMS

WOUNDS, ILLNESS FOLLOWS
MOSTLY LATE SUMMER TO FALL
EDEMA
CARDIOVASCULAR IRREGULARITIES
LABORED BREATHING
COLLAPSE
MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS, TREMBLING, STAGGERING
EXCITED, IRRITABLE FOLLOWED BY DEPRESSION
TEMPERATURE, 105 AND ABOVE
ABCESS, TONGUE
THROAT, SWELLING and LESIONS
RUMEN STASIS AND BLOAT

ABORTION
MILK PRODUCTION FALLS

SUDDEN DEATH
BLOOD, DARK , THICK, FAILS TO CLOT
BODILY OPENINGS, BLOODY DISCHARGE
RIGOR MORTIS ABSENT

Because of the rapid course of this disease, diagnosis almost always involves the observation of a dead animal. The characteristic finding is a bloated carcass with dark blood oozing from bodily opening and the lack of rigor mortis. (This is different from the small amount of normal-colored blood that many animals emit from the nostrils at death.) "Subacute" cases may abort, but this will be accompanied by other symptoms which make it clear that the animal is extremely ill (high fever, refuses to eat, hemorrhages inside mouth, slobbering, weakness). In goats, there may be trembling, difficult breathing, and convulsions followed by death.

Whenever anthrax is suspected, one should not touch the carcass. Man is very susceptible to the disease. Your vet and/or local livestock authorities should be contacted as per local laws. Treatment should not be attempted.

CONTAGIOUS CAPRINE PLEUROPNEUMONIA

1466, 8754, 8763

Mycoplasma

ABORTION
MYCOPLASMAL MASTITIS

ARCHED BACK
HEAD EXTENDED, LOWERED

COUGH
LABORED BREATHING
PNEUMONIA IN ONE LUNG ONLY
NOSTRILS, WATERY BILATERAL DISCHARGE

TEMPERATURE ABOVE NORMAL
WINTER

Mycoplasmal abortions can be the result of the same or related organisms which cuase a terrible type of mastitis (and sick babies) referred to in the section on Udder Care. The distinguishing feature of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia will be obvious respiratory distress and fever. The only successful treatment is isolation and tylosin (Tylan®); but there will be many losses.

LISTERIOSIS

8622

"Circling Disease"

SYMPTOMS

ABORTION

C N S DYSFUNCTION
AIMLESS WALKING
CIRCLING
ATAXIA (INCOORDINATION)
LEAN AGAINST OBJECTS
BLINDNESS

ANOREXIA
SOLITUTDE - SEEKS
DEPRESSED

SALIVA - STRINGY
DYSPLAGIA (CAN'T SWALLOW )
THROAT AND JAW PARALYSIS
FACE - TWITCHING, TREMORS, PARALYSIS
EARS DROOP / ENCEPHALITIS (BRAIN INFLAMMATION)

STRABISMUS (SQUINTING)
CONJUNCTIVITIS

TEMPERATURE - 105 AND ABOVE
RODENTS

"Circling disease," while more common in cattle can be a problem for many types of livestock. The most easily seen signs will those of encephalitis of the neurons on one side, which causes the animal to walk off-course to the right or left, hence the name "circling disease." If the organisms invade the uterus, abortions and stillbirths are likely (with none of the usual pre-delivery signs). It reportedly responds to early treatment with high doses of penicillin. The disease can be transmitted to human, especially when handling aborted fetuses.

MUCORMYCOSIS

8647

SYMPTOMS

ABORTION WITH PLACENTITIS
DIARRHEA
LABORED BREATHING
LESIONS OF BODY SURFACES, LYMPH NODES, GI TRACT

This is a fungal disease for which there is no known treatment.

NOCARDIOSIS

8674

SYMPTOMS

DROOLING (EXCESS WATERY SALIVATION)
LACRIMATION (TEARS)
TEMPERATURE - ABOVE NORMAL
ABORTION

UDDER - FIRM AND SWOLLEN, POSSIBLE WITH FISTULAS OR SINUSES
NODULES - WHITE EXUDATE WITH SMALL WHITE LUMPS
LYMPH NODES ENLARGED

Nocardiosis is primarily known as a very dangerous type of mastitis which can cause rapid loss of condition. It can lead to a systmeic illness with high fever, lack of appetite and frequently fatal results. It may spread to the lungs and lymph nodes, which will contain pus. Abortion may occur if the disease occurs during pregnancy.

Prognosis is guarded. Novobiocin infusions, lancing and treating of abscesses, and systemic penicillin may be of value>

B V D

8100

Bovine virus diarrhea
SYMPTOMS

ABORTION AND WEAK BABIES

ANOREXIA
DIARRHEA WITH TENESMUS (STRAINING)
FECES, BLOODY, MUCOUS IN, FOUL SMELLING
RUMEN STASIS
BLOAT
DEHYDRATION

EYES, OPACITY (CLOUDINESS,CATARACTS), CONJUNCTIVITIS, CORNEAL ULCER
NOSTRILS CRUSTY
MOUTH - INFLAMMATION
TONGUE, SLIPPERY, EXFOLIATE

INTERDIGITAL LESIONS
LAMENESS

DEPRESSED
PULSE AND RESPIRATION RAPID
TEMPERATURE 104 - 106, THEN NORMAL OR BELOW

What is a cattle disease doing here? Two reasons: some may also want to refer to this section in dealing with cattle or other species and BVD is important in demonstrating the wide range of symptoms that a single virus can cause. I'm sure there are any number of as-yet undiscovered viruses out there that could cause problems (including abortion) in goats. Because there is as yet no treatment for a viral infection, one can only alleviate symptoms, prevent secondary infections (possibly with antibiotics) and prevent the spread of the disease through such measures as isolation. Therefore, the lesson to be learned is important: to look at the totality of any group of symptoms and not simply concentrate on the abortion as the only issue.

I B R / I P V

8586

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis / Infectious pustular vulvovaginitis [herpesvirus]

SYMPTOMS
ABORTION, STILLBIRTH, WEAK BABIES

ANOREXIA
WEIGHT LOSS
DEPRESSED
DIARRHEA

TEMPERATURE - 105 AND ABOVE

DYSPNEA (SHORTNESS OF BREATH)
RESPIRATION - RAPID

LESIONS - MOUTH (ULCERS, GENERAL)
NOSTRILS - CRUSTY WITH WATERY OR BLOODY DISCHARGE
DROOLING, EXCESS WATERY SALIVATION

VULVA-VAGINITIS - PUSTULES, NODULES, SWOLLEN, EXUDATE
TAIL HELD UP

This viral disease of cattle is here for the same reasons as BVD, and it can cause an even more widespread list of symptoms.


Deficiencies of various items can also cause abortions. For these we will list only the sypmtoms and suggest that you look at these topics in other sections where available.

CALORIC DEFICIENCY

APPETITE, NORMAL
BABIES WEAK
CONDITION, LOSS OF
GROWTH RETARDED
INFERTILITY
MILK PRODUCTION FALLS
PUBERTY DELAYED
STILLBIRTH
WEIGHT LOSS

GENERAL NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES:

ANOREXIA, LIGHT
INFERTILITY

HYPOPROGESTERONISM

ABORTION
ESTRUS CYCLES SHORT AND IRREGULAR

IODINE DEFICIENCY

ABORTION
ALOPECIA
BABIES, WEAK
GOITER (In mother and/or baby)
INFERTILITY
STILLBIRTH
THROAT SWELLING
THYROID ENLARGED

MANGANESE DEFICIENCY:

ABORTION
ANESTRUS
BABIES, BLIND
BABIES, DEFORMED
ESTRUS CYCLES - LONG AND IRREGULAR
GROWTH RETARDED
HEAL, FAIL TO
HEAT, SILENT
INFERTILTIY
JOINT, ENLARGED
LAMENESS
OBESITY

PROTEIN DEFICIENCY:

ANEMIA
ANOREXIA, LIGHT
BABIES - WEAK
CACHEXIA (WEAKNESS)
CONDITION - LOSS OF
ESTRUS CYCLES - LONG AND IRREGULAR
GROWTH RETARDED
INFERTILITY
MILK PRODUCTION FALLS
PLACENTA RETAINED
STILLBIRTH
WEIGHT LOSS
VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY: ABORTION
ATAXIA
BABIES - WEAK
BLINDNESS, NIGHT
BRISKET EDEMA
CATARACT
CONVULSIONS WITHOUT PADDLING
CORNEAL ULCER
COUGH
DIARRHEA
HEAD HELD TO ONE SIDE
INFERTILITY
LABORED BREATHING
LACRIMATION
NOSTRILS - WATERY BILATRAL DISCHARGE OPACITY
PLACENTA _ RETAINED
SKIN - BROWN, GREASY EXUDATE
STAGGERING
STILLBIRTH
WEIGHT LOSS

WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE:

ARCHED BACK
BABIES WEAK
DIARRHEA
DYSPNEA
FEET - TOES SPLAYING
GROWTH RETARDED
NURSING STOPS, WON'T SUCKLE
PROSTRATION
STIFF
STILLBIRTH
SUDDEN DEATH


Poisoning as a result of ingestion of chemicals. The exact signs as they relate to abortion or damage to the fetus are highly dependant on the specific time in the gestation process when the event takes place.

NITRATE / NITRITE POISONING:

ABORTION
ATAXIA
BLOOD - BROWN (CHOCOLATE)
BREATH SMELLS OF KETONES
BREATHS THROUGH MOUTH
CACHEXIA (WEAKNESS)
CONVULSIONS WITHOUT PADDLING
CYANOSIS (BLUE SKIN AND LIPS)
DYSPNEA
HYPERESTHESIA
LABORED BREATHING
LUNG SOUNDS - CRACKLING, SPLASHING
NERVOUS
PULSE - RAPID
TEMPERATURE - SUBNORMAL

SELENIUM POISONING

ALOPECIA (HAIR LOSS)
ANOREXIA
ATAXIA (INCOORDINATION)
BABIES - BLIND
BABIES - DEFORMED
BABIES - WEAK
BLINDNESS
CACHEXIA (WEAKNESS)
CORONA - HOOFS CRACK AT
DEPRESSED
FORE LIMBS WEAK
HOOFS - ABNORMAL GROWTH, DISTORTED
HOOFS - CRACKED
LABORED BREATHING
LAMENESS
NOSTRILS - FROTHY DISCHARGE
PUPILS DILATED
RUN INTO OBJECTS
STAGGERING
STIFF
STILLBIRTH
TEMPERATURE - NORMAL, THEN SUBNORMAL
TONGUE PARALYSIS
WEIGHT LOSS

SWEET CLOVER POISONING

ANEMIA
BABIES WEAK
BLOOD - FAILS TO CLOT FECES BLOODY (NOT NECESSARILY DIARRHEA)
LAMENESS
NOSEBLEEDS
STIFF
STILLBIRTH
WESTERN YELLOW PINE

ABORTION

Miscellaneous causes of abortion

C N S CONGENITAL ANOMILES

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
CONVULSIONS WITHOUT PADDLING
HIND LIMBS WEAK
MUSCLES ATROPHY PROTOPORPHYRIA
RECUMBANCY
RELUCTANT TO MOVE
STIFF
STILLBIRTH
UREMIA
WEAVING
MYOPATHIES, GENERAL

BABIES WEAK
STILLBIRTH

MYODYSPLASIA

BABIES WEAK
GROWTH RETARDED

RIFT VALLEY FEVER

ABORTION
CACHEXIA (WEAKNESS)
DEPRESSED
DIARRHEA
STAGGERING
TEMPERATURE ABOVE NORMAL

OTHERS:

Poor feeding, malnutrition
Crowding
Trauma, injury
Fatigue
Shock
Drugs, chemicals, poisons
Overdose of iodine
Ticks (tick fever, paralysis)

Link to page on treating Weak babies    new 4/16/00

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